Published on Jan 25, 2011
The Benefits of Positive Passenger Profiling on Baggage Screening Requirements
Russell Shaver, Michael Kennedy
This research addresses airport security needs over the longer term; namely, how best to balance in the future the two principal criteria that are commonly put forward for sizing the machine deployments at individual airports. These two criteria—keeping the cost to the government of acquiring, installing, and operating the baggage scanning equipment as low as possible and not seriously disrupting the passenger flow through the airport—are in conflict because lowering passenger disruption requires more machines and thus more program cost. In this research, we present a methodology for balancing the two criteria and thus for answering the question, How much (baggage scanning equipment) is enough?
Scientific Substantiation of Behavioral Indicators
Transportation Security Administration
This report contains a detailed discussion on the scientific evidence for the continued use of
Verbal and Nonverbal Clues for Real-life Deception Detection
Yao Xiao, CJ Linton, Mihai
University of Michigan
Deception detection has been receiving an increasing amount of attention from the computational linguistics, speech, and multimodal processing communities. One of the major challenges encountered in this task is the availability of data, and most of the research work to date has been conducted on acted or artificially collected data. The generated deception models are thus lacking real-world evidence. In this paper, we explore the use of multimodal real-life data for the task of deception detection. We develop a new deception dataset consisting of videos from
Using Behavioral Indicators to Help Detect Potential Violent Acts
A Review of the Science Base
Paul K. Davis, Walter L. Perry, Ryan Andrew Brown, Douglas Yeung,
Parisa Roshan, Phoenix Voorhies
This report reviews the scientific literature relating to observable behavioural indicators that might, along with other information, help detect potential attacks, such as those by suicide terrorists or the laying of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The report is intended to be of interest to officials contemplating future investments amidst tightening budgets, and to researchers and analysts. It deals with individual-level indicators and does not extend to detecting society-level phenomena, such as social movements or insurgent groups.
Discretion and fairness in airport security screening
Department of Criminology, Law and Society, Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy, George Mason
This study reports the
Behavioural Detection as a Security Measure
IFALPA The Global Voice of Pilots
Over the last decades, States have developed an array of security procedures to prevent acts of unlawful interference against civil aviation. Likewise, new technologies have emerged, such as new generation metal detectors and Explosive Trace Detection (ETD) equipment. However, these systems remain very costly and time-consuming when applied to all passengers. Some of the most efficient methods are actually applied to only a selection of persons, usually selected on a random basis. Alongside such selection, it is also possible to apply a system based on analyzing behaviour to categorize passengers. This allows baseline measures to be applied to some
HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND DECEPTION DETECTION
Mark G. Frank and Melissa A. Menasco
University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York
University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California
Human intelligence is the key to stopping terrorism, and therefore it is essential to know when the information obtained is false. This article briefly outlines the research on
ECAC STRATEGY PAPER ON BEHAVIOUR DETECTION
1. In 2011, the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) established the Behaviour Detection Study Group (BDSG) to facilitate the exchange of information, validation results, and best practices among States with active anomalous behaviour detection (BD) programmes in civil aviation environments. While applied methodologies, practices, and processes vary within each State’s programme, all share similar characteristics as an optimised, flexible tool that has been integrated into its current aviation security regime.
© Bernard E. Harcourt
Passenger Profiling, Imperfect Screening, and Airport Security
by Nicola Persico and Petra E. Todd
The need for greater airport security has recently led to major changes in passenger screening procedures. One important change is the development of a
(see e.g. U.S. General Accounting Office 2004).
Statistical profiling to predict the biosecurity risk presented by non-compliant international passengers
Stephen E Lane, Richard Gao, Matthew Chisholm, and Andrew P Robinson
Centre of Excellence for Biosecurity Risk Analysis, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010,
Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia
February 15, 2017
Biosecurity risk material (BRM) presents a clear and significant threat to national and international environmental and economic assets. Intercepting BRM carried by non-compliant international passengers is a key priority of border biosecurity services. Global travel rates are constantly increasing, which complicates this important
One Size Does Not Fit All: A Game-Theoretic Approach for Dynamically and Effectively Screening for Threats
Matthew Brown, Arunesh Sinha, Aaron Schlenker, Milind Tambe
University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
An effective way of preventing attacks in secure areas is to screen for threats (people, objects) before entry, e.g., screening of airport passengers. However, screening every entity at the same level may be both ineffective and undesirable. The challenge then is to find a dynamic approach for randomized screening, allowing for more effective use of limited screening resources, leading to improved security. We address this challenge with the following contributions: (1) a threat screening game (TSG) model for general screening domains; (2) an NP-hardness proof for computing the optimal strategy of TSGs; (3) a scheme for decomposing TSGs into subgames to improve scalability; (4) a novel algorithm that exploits a compact game representation to efficiently solve TSGs, providing the optimal solution under certain conditions; and (5) an empirical comparison of our proposed algorithm against the current state-
Are Emerging Technologies in Airport Passenger Screening Reasonable under the Fourth
Loyola Marymount University and Loyola Law School Digital Commons at Loyola Marymount
University and Loyola Law School
COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE, SPACE, AND TECHNOLOGY SUBCOMMITTEE ON INVESTIGATIONS & OVERSIGHT U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
Behavioral Science and Security: Evaluating TSA’s SPOT Program
WEDNESDAY, APRIL 6, 2011
10:00 A.M.—12:00 P.M.
2318 RAYBURN HOUSE OFFICE BUILDING
The Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight meets on April 6,
How Effective Is Security Screening of Airline Passengers?
Susan E. Martonosi
Department of Mathematics, Harvey Mudd College, 301 Platt Boulevard,
Claremont, California 91711, email@example.com
Operations Research Center, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E53-379, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, firstname.lastname@example.org
With a simple mathematical model, we explored the antiterrorist effectiveness of airport passenger prescreening systems. Supporters of these systems often emphasize the need to identify the most suspicious passengers, but they ignore the point that such identification does little good unless dangerous items can actually be detected. Critics often focus on terrorists’ ability to probe the system and thereby thwart it, but ignore the possibility that the very act of probing can deter attempts at sabotage that would have succeeded. Using the model to make some preliminary assessments about security policy, we find that an improved baseline level of screening for all passengers might lower the likelihood of attack more than would improved profiling of high-risk passengers.
Airport Security from a Passenger’s Perspective
The level of airport security has increased significantly in recent years. Most of these security measures were taken due to incidents such as the Lockerbie bombing and the 9/11 attacks. The measures influence all parties involved in the aviation industry.
Published on Feb 16, 2016
Evaluation of the effectiveness of an airport passenger and baggage security screening system
Abstract Airport security managers need methods to quantify changes in
A Mathematical Framework for Sequential Passenger and Baggage Screening to Enhance Aviation Security
Hande Sahin, Qianmei Feng
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
To enhance security at both national and global levels, airport security screening systems must be designed with high efficiency and effectiveness, which are affected by both screening technologies and operational procedures for utilizing those technologies. The operational efficiency and aviation security can be enhanced if an effective passenger prescreening system is integrated into the baggage screening system. In this paper, passenger information is incorporated into a two-level checked-baggage screening system to determine the screening strategy for different subsets of passengers. By deploying a passenger prescreening system, this paper considers selectively applying baggage screening procedures for 100% screening. Since new image-based screening technologies differ widely in cost and accuracy, a comprehensive mathematical framework is developed in this paper for selecting technology or combination of technologies for efficient 100% baggage screening. The objective is to determine the optimal combination of technologies and the setting of threshold values for these screening technologies as well. Probability and optimization techniques are used to quantify and evaluate the risk and cost-effectiveness of various device deployment configurations, which are captured by using a system life-cycle cost model. Numerical analysis for all possible system arrangements is demonstrated.
Risk and economic assessment of expedited passenger screening and TSA PreCheck
Mark G. Stewart & John Mueller
Received: 25 August 2016 /Accepted: 14 November 2016
# Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016
The Transportation Security Administration’s PreCheck program allows airline passengers assessed as low risk to be directed to faster screening lanes. The paper assesses the scenario of a terrorist plot to down an airliner with a passenger-borne bomb. There are four main conclusions. First, we find that the layered system currently in place reduces the risk of such an attack by 98% – and probably by quite a bit more. Second, this level of risk reduction is very robust: security remains high even when the parameters that make it up are varied considerably. In particular, because of the large array of other security layers, overall risk reduction is relatively insensitive to how effective checkpoint screening is. Third, under most realistic combinations of parameter values PreCheck actually increases risk reduction, perhaps up to 1%, while under the worst assumptions, it lowers risk reduction by some 0.3%. Fourth, the co-benefits of the PreCheck program are very substantial: by greatly reducing checkpoint costs and by improving the passenger experience, this benefit can exceed several billion dollars per year
Analysis of Airport Security Screening Checkpoints using Queuing Networks and Discrete Event Simulation: A Theoretical and Empirical Approach
Stephen Louis Dorton
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University – Daytona Beach
This study utilized discrete event simulation (DES) and queuing networks to investigate the effects of baggage volume and alarm rate at the Security Screening Checkpoint (SSCP) of a small origin and destination airport. A Jackson queuing network was considered for a theoretical assessment to SSCP performance. A DES model using Arena version 12 was utilized for an empirical approach. Data was collected from both
Ethnic Profiling In Airport Screening: Lessons From Israel, 1968–2010
Tel Aviv University, and Liav Orgad, The Interdisciplinary Center,
Radzyner School of Law
We interviewed a random sample of 918 passengers—308 Israeli Jews, 306 Palestinians who are Israeli citizens (Israeli Arabs), and 304 non-Israelis—
The Analysis of Nonverbal Communication: The Dangers of Pseudoscience in Security and Justice Contexts
Vincent Denault, Pierrich Plusquellec, Louise M. Jupe, Michel St-Yves, Norah E. Dunbar, Maria Hartwig, Siegfried L. Sporer, Jessica Rioux-Turcotte, Jonathan Jarry, Dave Walsh, Henry Otgaar, Andrei Viziteu, Victoria Talwar, David A. Keatley, Iris Blandón-Gitlin, Clint Townson, Nadine Deslauriers-Varin, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Miles L. Patterson, Igor Areh, Alfred Allan, Hilary Evans Cameron, Rémi Boivin, Leanne ten Brinke, Jaume Masip, Ray Bull, Mireille Cyr, Lorraine Hope, Leif A. Strömwall, Stephanie J. Bennett, Faisal Al Menaiya, Richard A. Leo, Annelies Vredeveldt, Marty Laforest, Charles R. Honts, Antonio L. Manzanero, Samantha Mann, Pär-Anders Granhag, Karl Ask, Fiona Gabbert, Jean-Pierre Guay, Alexandre Coutant, Jeffrey Hancock, Valerie Manusov, Judee K. Burgoon, Steven M. Kleinman, Gordon Wright, Sara Landström, Ian Freckelton, Zarah Vernham, and Peter J. van Koppen
For security and justice professionals (e.g., police officers, lawyers, judges), the thousands of peer-reviewed articles on nonverbal communication represent important sources of knowledge. However, despite the scope of the scientific work carried out on this subject, professionals can turn to programs, methods, and approaches that fail to reflect the state of
Deception Detection through Automatic, Unobtrusive Analysis of Nonverbal Behavior
Thomas O. Meservy, Matthew L. Jensen, John Kruse, Judee K. Burgoon, and Jay F. Nunamaker Jr., University of Arizona
Douglas P. Twitchell, Illinois State University
Gabriel Tsechpenakis and Dimitris N. Metaxas, Rutgers University
Applying the Verifiability Approach in an International Airport Setting
Louise M Jupe
Department of Psychology, University of Portsmouth, UK Galit Nahari
Department of Criminology. Bar-Ilan University, Israel
In the current
Finding a needle in a haystack: Towards a psychologically-informed method for aviation security screening
Thomas C. Ormerod, Coral J.Dando
Department of Psychology, University of Surrey, UK.Department of Psychology, University of Wolverhampton, UK.
Current aviation security systems identify behavioural indicators of deception to assess risks to flights, but they lack a strong psychological basis or empirical validation. We present a new method that tests the veracity of passenger accounts. In an in-vivo double-blind randomised-control trial conducted in international airports, security agents detected 66% of deceptive passengers using the veracity test method compared with less than 5% using behavioural indicator recognition. As well as revealing advantages of veracity testing over behavioural indicator identification, the study provides the highest levels to date of deception detection in a realistic setting where the known base rate of deceptive individuals is low.
Executing Facial Control During Deception Situations
Carolyn M. Hurley • Mark G. Frank
From Non-Places to Non-Events:
The Airport Security Checkpoint
Verbal and Nonverbal Clues for Real-life Deception Detection
Vero ́nica Pe ́rez-Rosas, Mohamed Abouelenien, Rada Mihalcea,
Yao Xiao, CJ Linton, Mihai Burzo
Deception detection has been receiving an increasing amount of attention from the computational linguistics, speech, and multimodal processing communities. One of the major challenges encountered in this task is the availability of data, and most of the research work to date has been conducted on acted or artificially collected data. The generated deception models are thus lacking real-world evidence. In this paper, we explore the use of multimodal real-life data for the task of deception detection. We develop a new deception dataset consisting of videos from real-life
See no evil: Cognitive challenges of security surveillance and monitoring
Helen M. Hodgetts, François Vachon, Cindy Chamberland, and Sébastien Tremblay
While the development of intelligent technologies in security surveillance can augment human capabilities, they do not replace the role of the operator entirely; as such, when developing surveillance support it is critical that limitations to the cognitive system are taken into account. The current article reviews the cognitive challenges associated with the task of a CCTV operator: visual search and cognitive/perceptual overload, attentional failures, vulnerability to distraction, and decision-making in a dynamically evolving environment. While not directly applied to surveillance issues, we suggest that the NSEEV (noticing – salience, effort, expectancy, value) model of attention could provide a useful theoretical basis for understanding the challenges faced in detection and monitoring tasks. Having identified cognitive limitations of the human operator, this review sets out a research agenda for further understanding the cognitive functioning related to
Bombs, bodies, and biopolitics: securitizing the subject at the airport security checkpoint
Lauren L. Martin
The United States Transportation Security Administration (TSA) broadcasts the following warning in airports around the country: ‘Making jokes or statements regarding bombs and/or threats during the screening process may be grounds for both civil and criminal penalties and could cause you to miss your flight.’ Despite the warning, people continue to be arrested for making jokes about bombs, anthrax, and security policy. This paper examines the persistence of these disciplinary mechanisms in the context of the deterritorialized risk analysis, biometric identity banking, and ‘network thinking’ that characterize state security regimes. The article first describes how TSA has incorporated theories of complex adaptive systems, networks, and emergence into its strategy. Second, I trace how air
Behavioural Detection: a case study from London Gatwick
Airport operators are constantly working to achieve compliance against heavily prescribed security regulations, but what more can be done to protect against the threat as it has evolved today? Andy Palmer discusses how Gatwick Airport has taken a ‘compliance plus’ approach to security through the implementation of its behavioural detection programme.
Behaviour Detection Demystified: A Glimpse into the TSA’s Capability
Since its inception, the Transportation Security Administration’s (TSA) Behaviour Detection programme has been criticised for allegedly being a racial ‘profiling technique’ and not scientifically valid. In spite of these criticisms, the TSA continues to deploy this capability. Jennifer Blanchard delves into the reasons why a capability focused on human behaviour is so critical to any security infrastructure and attempts to put the profiling allegations to rest.
AN EVALUATION OF THE THEORY AND THE PRACTICE OF TERRORIST
PROFILING IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF TERRORIST CHARACTERISTICS
NOEL KEVIN MCGUIRK
A key trend in laws and policies aimed at combatting terrorism is the increasing use of policing strategies that allow law enforcement officers anticipate risk so that they can engage in preventing, interrupting and prosecuting those suspected of terrorism offences before their commission. One such pre-emptive policing strategy is the use of terrorist profiling. The rationale underpinning terrorist profiling is to allow law enforcement officers identify those likely to involved in terrorism or its associated
activities so that law enforcement officers can prevent, interrupt and prosecute suspects before an act of terrorism. The use of terrorist profiling is highly controversial given that its use has been perceived as being unlawful. Previous attempts to analyse terrorist profiling has tended to rely solely on human rights law as the analytical lens to evaluate the usefulness and lawfulness of terrorist profiling.
manifestations of terrorist profiling. These analytical lenses are used to conduct a taxonomy on different manifestations of terrorist profiling so as to systematically evaluate their usefulness as a law enforcement tool to predict likely terrorist characteristics.
reach and spread of the extremist narrative. In this paper, our aim is to identify measures to automatically detect radical content in social media. We identify several signals, including textual, psychological and behavioural, that together allow for the classification of radical messages. Our contribution is threefold: (1) we analyze propaganda material published by extremist groups and create a contextual text-based model of radical content, (2) we build a model of psychological properties inferred
from these material, and (3) we evaluate these models on Twitter to determine the extent to which it is possible to automatically identify online radical tweets. Our results show that radical users do exhibit distinguishable textual, psychological, and behavioural properties. We find that the psychological properties are among the most distinguishing features. Additionally, our results show that textual models using vector embedding features significantly improves the detection over TF-IDF features. We validate our approach on two experiments achieving high accuracy. Our findings can be utilized as signals for detecting online radicalization activities
Following the airplane attacks of September 11th, 2001 it is claimed that many Americans, dreading a repeat of these events, drove instead of flying, and that, consequently, there were extra car accidents, increasing the number of fatalities directly caused by the attacks by 1,500. After the Madrid train bombings of March 11th, 2004, Spaniards, like Americans,
avoided the attacked mode of travel, but no increase in car travel or fatal accidents resulted. Here we analyze behavioral concomitants of the July 7th 2005 bomb attacks on public transport in London. We find reduced underground train travel and an increase in rates of bicycling and, over the 6 months following the attacks, 214 additional bicyclist road casualties – a 15.4% increase. Nevertheless we found no detectable increase in car accidents. We conclude that, while fear caused by terrorism may initiate potentially dangerous behaviors, understanding the secondary effects of terrorism requires consideration of the environmental variables that enable fear to manifest in dangerous behaviors.
In 2014 an intense debate over the state of terrorism literature was published. Sageman [2014. The stagnation in terrorism research. Terrorism and Political Violence, 26(4), 565–580. doi:10.1080/09546553.2014.895649] claimed that the field had stagnated, mainly due to lack of data sharing between government departments that have access to valuable information that could inform our understanding, and researchers who have the skills and expertise to make sense of this. However, others were more positive regarding the literature, highlighting areas where progress has been made [e.g. McCauley, & Moskalenko (2014). Some things We think We’ve learned since 9/11: A commentary on Marc Sageman’s ‘The stagnation in terrorism research’. Terrorism and Political Violence, 26(4), 601–606. doi:10.1080/09546553.2014.895653; Stern (2014). Response to Marc Sageman’s ‘The stagnation in terrorism research’. Terrorism and Political Violence, 26(4), 607–613. doi:10.1080/09546553.2014.895654; Taylor (2014). If I were you, I wouldn’t start from here: Response to Marc Sageman’s The stagnation in terrorism research’. Terrorism and Political Violence, 26(4), 581–586. doi:10.1080/09546553.2014.895650]. Here we re-visit the literature and identify advances that have been made since 2014. We explore ongoing challenges for terrorism researchers and practitioners, and options for ways forward to ensure evidence-based responses to terrorist individuals and groups.
Research consistently supports the notion that terrorists are rational actors. However, there has been a tendency to focus on distal factors associated with involvement in terrorism, and there is a distinct lack of empirical research on aspects of attack commission at the individual level. Little has been done to identify proximal factors associated with attacks. This thesis uses multiple
paradigms from environmental criminology, including journey-to-crime analyses, various spatial and temporal statistics, risk terrain modelling and discrete choice modelling, to examine the target selection for two of the current national security threats to the UK: lone-actor terrorism and Northern Ireland related terrorism. Collectively, the findings indicate that target selection is guided by an inherent logic, and that terrorists are rational in their spatial decision making. The first piece of analysis demonstrates that lone-actor terrorists behave in a similar way to group terrorists and urban criminals. Their residence-to-attack journeys display a classic distance decay pattern. The second empirical chapter shows how attacks by violent dissident Republicans in the period studied were spatially and temporally clustered. The following chapter identifies differences between risk factors for bombings and bomb hoaxes, and suggests that dissident Republicans may select less ideological targets for bombings relative to bomb hoaxes. The final empirical chapter demonstrates that the locations of attacks by the Provisional Irish Republican Army were influenced by characteristics of the target areas as well as the properties of their likely journey to the target. In the concluding chapter, a new framework for target selection is presented and assessed using illustrative examples of recent attacks in the U.K. Important insights are provided that could guide and improve the efficacy of preventative and disruptive measures.