The following pages could be classed as case studies; but as we are making no suggestions or conclusions, they are more a gathering of information. We have done this to assist in the understanding of how a crowd related incident can come to being.
As will all the information provided on this site, we leave it to you as the reader to come to you own conclusion and hopefully continue your research and where possible prevent incidents happening again. All information is gathered from internet based sources to allow as wide a spread of resources as possible. This will come in the form of links to news and webpages, videos and PDF/Doc downloads. Some of the pages may contain links to a Google Drive. This is provided by WorkingWithCrowds to assist you gain access to the PDF/Dec downloads. We are aware of the uncertainty when it comes to down loading documents from the internet.
Where possible, we will update pages with relevant information and new information as we become aware of it. If you know of information in relation to any of the provided incidents, please get in touch with us to allow inclusion.
The Journal of Crowd Safety and Security Management – An Online Journal (JCSSM) was an educational, industry oriented journal which is designed to serve as a forum for practitioners, scholars, and students who where actively engaged in the academically fledgling industry of crowd safety and security.
Through the Journals short run (2009-2012) it published essays, discussion and research notes, book reviews, and commentaries. The overriding aim of the Journal was to contribute actively to the professionalisation of the crowd safety and security industry by creating a platform which encourages dialogue between the industry and academia, and promotes research and good practice.
After years of development in the crowd safety industry, we find that the availability of all the research carried out is substantially below what it should be. All those dissertation submissions are locked away in files and never see the light of day. After all the effort that went into the submission, it is a shame for it never to be shared.
Ibrox Stadium, Glasgow.Saturday January 2 1971.
66 fans where killed in a crowd related incident within the stadium; stairway 13 in the East terrace. Among the victims where 31 teenagers and the youngest fan being only 9 years old.
The Bradford City stadium fire was the worst fire disaster in the history of football. It occurred during a league match, on Saturday, 11 May 1985, killing 56 and injuring at least 265.
The Heysel Stadium crowd related incident occurred on 29 May 1985 crowd disorder lead to the collapse of a wall as fans tried to evade the violence. The incident occurred before the start of the European Cup Final between Juventus and Liverpool. 39 people were killed and 600 were injured in the incident
On 15 April 1989, 96 victims lost their lives and 766 supporters were injured, in what is commonly know as The Hillsborough disaster. A fatal crowd crush occurred during the FA Cup semi-final; Liverpool v Nottingham Forest. The match was held at Hillsborough Stadium in the city of Sheffield, England. The incident occurred in the Leppings Lane stand; confined to two standing-only central pens, allocated to Liverpool supporters.
During the headlining set by the band Pearl Jam, nine festival-goers died in a crowd related incident. Twenty-six people were injured, three of them seriously. Of the fans that died; all male, their age ranged from 17 –26
The following is a collection of information in relation to the death of Jessica Michalik, at the Big Day Out Festival in Sydney, 2001. Cause of death was Hypoxic Encephalopathy due to Crush and Mechanic Asphyxi; due to a crowd related crushing incident on the 26th January 2001.
We do not impose personal points of view or opinion on this incident, we simply collect together information. A special thank you to Jim Fidler for the provision of information and guidance.
The Station nightclub fire, Thursday, February 20, 2003, Rhode Island. The fire was caused by pyrotechnics during the headlining band Great White, which ignited flammable sound insulation. Fire with intense black smoke engulfed the club in minutes. The toxic smoke, heat and crowd crush at exits killed 100; 230 were injured.
Love Parade was a popular and music festival/parade that was established in 1989 in Berlin, Germany. In 2010 The Love Parade moved to Duisburg the first time the festival had been held in an enclosed space; previous events had been held in open streets and parks. Due to the scale of the event estimated attendance was hard to establish before hand, but was expected to be about 200,000 and 1.4 million; based on previous events. The tragic occurrences of 2010 ensured that this annual electronic dance music festival and parade would be no more.
In the early hours of the 1st November, a progressive crowd collapse within the venue took the likes of 5 people and injured many more. The videos and news reports you will see in the majority describe this as a “Stampede”, this is incorrect.
On a day that has not been seen in our industry in 10 years, we have created this page to collect initial reports and updates. It is upsetting when a single life is lost during a planned and organised event, the numbers that have been printed and reported today and tragic.
Please ignore all references to the words “Stampede”, this site condemns the use of this description of a crowd related incident as misleading to the reader. Please read the related research by professional and respected practitioners in the field of crowd safety management, risk analysis and phycology to better understand the events of today
22 May 2017 time 22:31 . A suicide bomber (Salman Ramadan Abedi) detonated an improvised explosive device, in the foyer area of the Manchester Arena. The attack took place during the egress of the Ariana Grande concert. 14,200 people were attending the concert. Many exiting concert-goers and waiting parents were in the foyer at the time of the explosion. According to evidence presented at the coroner’s inquest, the detonation of the bomb killed people who were up to 20 metres away.
On the 18th January 2018, the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department, released their initial report into the mass shooting incident at a concert on the 1st October 2017. Prior to this, we have reframed form including much about the incident; although the severity and relevance suggests that we should.
This is a collection of information in regards to the death of Three teenagers and 30 injured people at a free concert at the Francisco de Miranda Park in Caracas, by the Venezuelan trap singer Netro Shorty.
The following information has been gathered to assist in planning for and understanding potential solutions to reentering the area of crowded events and public safety. The information provided has been gathered from open source material online.
This is not an endorsement of the following provision of service within football stadiums, but observations of the area and the discussions surrounding the implementation of the area. This is the personal opinion of the person writing this blog and has no association with the implementation of the products or providers.