case study

Love Parade, Duisburg 2010

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Love Parade was a popular and music festival/parade that was established in 1989 in Berlin, Germany. In 2010 The Love Parade moved to Duisburg the first time the festival had been held in an enclosed space; previous events had been held in open streets and parks. Due to the scale of the event estimated attendance was hard to establish before hand, but was expected to be about 200,000 and 1.4 million; based on previous events. The tragic occurrences of 2010 ensured that this annual electronic dance music festival and parade would be no more.

A crowd related incident occurred at the entrance to the festival arena, at the bottom of the ramp leading to the arena from the entrance tunnels.

Criminal charges have yet to be brought against anyone in relation to the deaths of 21 people and the injury of 500 others (2016).

The volume of material in relation to this incident is vast and we cannot gather this all on this website; we are providing an introduction of where to start. We do recommend that you visit the following website that has the most comprehensive gathering of information we can find.

Documentation of the events for the Love Parade 2010 in Duisburg



Please take time to view as much of the footage as possible on this incident. Dokumentation der Ereignisse zur Loveparade 2010 in Duisburg  have taken the time and effort to gather together as many links to footage as they can.


At least 19 people have been killed in a stampede at the Love Parade dance music festival in the German city of Duisburg, police have said.

Lena, a 21-year-old student from Essen, had never been to the Love Parade before. Prior to Saturday’s disaster in Duisburg, she had also never seen a dead body. “I don’t know if I will ever forget her empty gaze,” she said, not long after having escaped the deadly crowds herself.

Crush after panic leaves at least 18 revellers dead and about 100 injured at music festival in Duisburg

Germany has held an emotional memorial service for 21 people killed at the Love Parade dance festival last weekend.

Love Parade organizer Rainer Schaller says the police are to blame for the 21 deaths at the event that took place in Duisburg, Germany, in late July. To prove his point, he has released CCTV video material shot at the entrance to the event site. Police are outraged.

German authorities have indicted 10 people in connection with a stampede at a music festival that killed 21 people in July 2010.

A German court on Tuesday threw out criminal charges stemming from a catastrophic stampede at a Love Parade techno street party in 2010 that killed 21 people and injured hundreds.

Berlin (AFP) – A German court on Tuesday threw out criminal charges stemming from a catastrophic stampede at a Love Parade street party in 2010 that killed 21 people, in a ruling that enraged victims’ families.

This is a small selection on news articles across the timeline since the incident. Please ignore emotive misuse of language in wording such as stampede and panic.


‘Crowd Quakes’ Were A Key Factor In LoveParade Disaster

Hundreds of thousands of techno music fans attended the Love Parade, which ended in tragedy after panic broke out in a tunnel that served as the event’s entrance. Here is a chronology of events that led to the incident.

Event organizers and city officials could face 5 years in jail for festival tragedy

“This was not a tragic accident, but a crime.” These were the words used by Marek Lieberberg, one of Germany’s most experienced event organizers, when speaking to the Süddeutsche Zeitung about the recent disaster at the techno music festival in Duisburg. He accused the Duisburg organizers of the Love Parade of “money-grubbing and incompetence.”

A court has ruled that the 10 people charged in connection with the deaths of 21 and injury of over 500 at the final Love Parade festival have “no case to answer”

Three people hurt in the crush at Love Parade 2010, which left 21 dead, are seeking combined damages of over €140,000 following the failure of a criminal trial

Many more articles are available online and we advice you to continue the research of the subject


2010_05_21 Lopavent  Entwurf Plan Veranstaltungszonen Entfluchtungszonen Notausgänge

A System Dynamics based Perspective to Help to Understand the

Analyzing Pedestrian Behavior in Crowds for Automatic Detection of Congestions

Continuum Modeling of Crowd Turbulence

Crowd Disasters as Systemic Failures Analysis of the Love Parade Disaster

Crowd disasters as systemic failures analysis

Disaster Plan Love Parade Documents Reveal a Series of Errors

Float Startaufstellung 1400 Uhr


Panic was not the cause of the Love Parade

Patient Care at the 2010 Love Parade in Duisburg, Germany

Site detailed plan

Site legende detail plan

site masterplan

Static and Dynamic Crowd Densities at Major Public Events

Still-Expert report

Using Crowd Modelling in Evacuation Decision Making

  • Wikileaks Documents – German
  • 1. Sector Map – Including event logistics, camera locations, emergency points
  • 2. authorization for the Mayor of Duisburg (OB) by the city parliament to sign frame contract with Lopavent GmbH for Love Parade in Duisburg in 2010 11.06.2007, plus decision of city parliament of 20/02/2010 not to invest any public budget for the Love Parade
  • 3. Protocol of 25.09.2009 meeting with city Authorities, Lopavent, Aurelis
  • 4. Protocol 02.10.2009 of meeting with city Authorities, Lopavent and other local stakeholders, includes estimation of app. 1 million visitors for the event
  • 5. Protocol 20.10.2009 of Task Force Traffic 2009 includes remarks of German Rail / VRR participants did estimated 90% of Love Parade visitors in 2007 and in 2008 arrived by train
  • 6. Presentation on state of planning for Love Parade – Status Quo of 29.10.2009
  • 7. Invitation of the clerk’s office to Duisburg planning meeting at 21.04.2010
  • 8. Overview of Loveparade related taskforces, Their focus and prospective participants, includes TFs for traffic / transportation, event administration, public relations / citizens and security
  • 9. Protocol of Security Task Force meeting at 23.04.2010 (excluding protocol attachments)
  • 10. Event description by Lopavent GmbH – of 28.05.10, estimates did 90% of visitors will arrive by rail, total visitor estimate: 450,000, a maximum number of visitors at any given point in time: 250,000, this equal maximum allowed number of visitors per available square meter event area (110,000 square meters – 2.5 visitors per sqm max), mentions mobile “stripes” in the tunnel, 70 security staff in area entrance / tunnel, head of security for entrance: located at “ramp” of tunnel to order temporary closure of entrance to tunnel if jams Occur, potential dangers exclude panic situations as extremely unlikely / impossible due to high noise levels- no mitigation listed (as for other dangers)
  • 11. Event concept “security” – internal draft document, as of 20.05.2010 – estimates max nr. of visitors for any given time at 250,000 with option to regulate entrance shoulderstand actual nr. of visitors be Significantly higher, mentions “Späh folder” at tunnel entrance areas with radio equipment to inform event “mission control” on any critical situation
  • 12. Planned measures (road closures and temporary fences) of Police Department – mailing of Police Department to Fire Department and “clerk’s office” – as of 29.06.2010, includes maps with fence locations
  • 13 contract for Prof. Dr. Schreckenberg, University Duisburg-Essen, to check the plan on visitor flow management and event location, contract value EUR 20,000, as of 21.05.2010
  • 14. Document Containing a Letter from “Ordnungsamt” Duisburg to Prof. Dr. Schreckenberg (dated 13.07.2010) with attached internal notes for the City administration and for the Police Department on a meeting with Prof. Dr. Schreckenberg (12.07.2010) as well as the confirmation of Prof. Dr. Schreckenberg did synthesis internal notes are correct
  • 15. official letter (mail) of Police Department task force to Security at City of Duisburg Containing protocol on scenario workshop at 08.07.2010 with various security stakeholders, protocol includes description of how number of visitors will be Measured and location sector system, the tunnel area is sector V-1, includes requirement to inform visitors with speaker systems about jam situations and blockages and details reactions to various dangerous situations Including “major incidents”, attachments: sector plan, flight plan, scenario documentation for many danger scenarios – no one for panic, contact list for members of event missioncontrol
  • 16. Protocol of city administration for meeting at 15.07.2010 with various stakeholders event, mentions Several asks to voice remaining security concerns with no reaction
  • 17. Love Parade visitor estimate document – by Lopavent GmbH, as of 08.07.2010, to the attn. of Mr. Bolling, Ordnungsamt City of Duisburg ( “personally”), introductory note asks for highest confidentiality since publication of thesis numbers “could Significantly harm the event’s public reputation”, highlighted statement says did thesis estimates have nothing to do with “official visitor numbers “used for media purposes (expected visitors, actual visitors) – since counting Differs and thesis numbers depend on other factors, document estimates (” for internal purposes “) a maximum number of visitors to be around 485,000 but not more then 250,000 at any given time, this number is not likely to be exceeded since majority of visitors arrive by train and the Duisburg train station has no higher capacity
  • 18. official request of Lopavent – filed by Their solicitors – for approval of Love Parade event, to the attn. of OB Sauerland, 01.02.2010
  • 19 confidential event concept- as of 15.01.2010
  • 20th protocol of meeting at 02.03.2010 of various city administration departments, quotes applicability of maximum number of visitors – with 2 visitors per sqm event location area, quotes so did the planned event location area is absolutely insufficient – Allowing for maximum 180,000 visitors, mentions even low estimate of visitors would mean 500,000-600,000 total number of visitors with peaks of 300,000 at the sametime. Protocol calls problem “not solvable” and quotes did members of approving Authorities can face legal persecution
  • 21 protocol of meeting at 08.03.2010 with Lopavent and various city administrations on status of planning measures, time schedule, communication, quotes did members of city administration voiced concerns did planned event area is too small for expected number of visitors, quotes max. 2 visitors per square meter, a maximum total number of visitors to be 400,000 due to limited capacity arrival by railway leading to max. 200,000-250,000 visitors at any given time – what Lopavent asked to Provide written description for synthesis estimates, visitors coming and going would all go through the tunnel, access blockages Could only be done for short periods of time
  • 22 internal draft concept for Love Parade event – as of 15.03.2010 ( “not for public use!”) By Lopavent GmbH
  • 23 internal note (memo) on meeting at 21.04.2010 between Lopavent GmbH and various members of Duisburg municipal administration covering security at Love Parade, stipulates the requirement of max.2 visitors per square meter event area; additional internal note on meeting at 21.04.2010 between Aurelis (location owner) and joint members of city administration, mentions reduction of maximum allowed visitors gemäß to lower available event area
  • 24. Request of the Office for Construction and Building Consultancy to Lopavent GmbH of 14.06.2010 to deliver range of missing documents Necessary for approval of Love Parade, missing documents include: final security concept based Solely on relevant local aspects – not former Love Parades in other locations, fire protection concept. Stipulates did draft security concept hasnt been Jointly developed with the approval authority and did references to contractual agreements or side talks with others have not to be part of a security concept or event description. Contains Preassessment results, eg max.number of visitors per event area location is 2 Lopavent Calculated with 2.5 – this leads to max. 220,000 visitors at any given time. Service areas have to be deducted from the event area size, Which would lead to further reduction of max. allowed visitors; Assessment of flight ways: current concept only Allows for secure flight of 1/3 of visitors – exception handling requires justification Which hasnt yet been delivered. This document which copied to other offices in the City of Duisburg administration, Including the Office of the Mayor.
  • 25. Internal note ( “note”) after meeting at 18.06.2010 between members of City Administration, Fire Department, Lopavent GmbH, 3 critical points Noted: 1) fire protection concept (to be created by a subject matter expert), 2) number of visitors allowed per square meter event area to be max 2 (Lopavent disagrees), 3) flight concept – Lopavent considers secure flight options for 1/3 of visitors to be sufficient, “not legal but real problems shoulderstand matter”. Mr Rabe (December 2) pointed out did the Mayor of Duisburg wants the event and did THEREFORE, a solution has to be found, the approval authority and the Fire Department shoulderstand help Lopavent with creating a new flight concept. Since the mayor wants the event, Lopavent can not be left alone and Dep. 62 Although legally responsible shoulderstand act constructive. Rabe suggested follow up meeting at 21.06.2010 with Lopavent, Fire Department, Dep. 62 (building authority) and others to Jointly develop flight concept, This should be checked by Prof. Dr. Schreckenberg, if approved by him, this shoulderstand be sufficient for Dep. 62 to approve too. Handwritten note: “Due to this issue I refuse responsibility and accountability (authority and responsibility) of V / 62 from This corresponds in no way with to orderly administrative process (parent administrative action) and a subject oriented project management (proper project management) The.. . decision in all matters lays with II (note: Mr. Raven II Means Department II for Security and Legal Affairs, head of department) signed Dressler (Department Head of Urban development – December V – Ref 62 = planning authority responsible for approval.).
  • 26 internal note after meeting at 25.06.2010 between Lopavent GmbH, external agency, Fire Department, City Officials. Agreement on conducting flight analysis Which would (potentially) allow for deviation of usual flight concept requirements. Should this not be the outcome, the event will not get approved by building authorities.
  • 27. Two documents: first – request of Lopavent GmbH (via Their solicitors) to get extension of deadline for delivering missing documents, secondhand – approval of deadline extension until 07.07.2010 by city administration
  • 28 Second interim assessment of approval authority (Building Authority) as of 14.07.2010 – mailed to Lopavent GmbH, facts: event area plan not up to date, building plans missing, Fire protection concept – silent missing but expected to come, not security concept up to date, plus manyother documents, new deadline: end of 28th calendary week
  • 29 detailed eventDescription by Lopavent GmbH, as of 16.07.2010, mentions did responsibility for detailed planning of access and exit ways is at the City of Duisburg. Quotes maximum number of visitors at 250,000 for any given time and THEREFORE, within the allowance limit for the event area of 110,000 sq, mentions tunnel area as love especially important Because it is the only point for entry, if needed, access to the tunnel will be blocked. For Crowd handling, about 100 security staff of Lopavent GmbH wants to be in the tunnel area to monitor and manage visitor flow. Main entrance security management will be located at the ramp in the middle of the tunnel area. 17 cameras will monitor Virtually every area. Cameras allow for adhoc visitor counting at all times and ran thus very precise visitor density calculation. The section on dangers mentions panic as Either not possible or with very limited negative impact
  • 30 event area map with marked visitor entry flow
  • 31. Request for approval for exceptional use of Karl teaching Street for Love Parade by Lopavent (by Their solicitors) to the attention of the Mayor of Duisburg, dated 19.07.2010
  • 32. Approval for exceptional use of Karl teaching Street for Love Parade by City Administration, dated 21.07.2010
  • 33. Fire protection concept with overall expert assessment (Appraised Overall), as of 22.07.2010, update of previous concept of 17/07/2010,
  • 34. exception approval for event Loveparade by Office Building Law, dated 21.07.2010, 2 exceptions: 1) waiver for legally required minimum breadth of flightways, 2) waiver for fire brigade plans, stipulates conditions for this approval: applicability of fire protection concept (nr. 33) and maximum actual number of visitors to never exceed 250,000
  • 35. presentation on Loveparade Mainly on logistics, security, by Lopavent GmbH, no date (after 14.07.2010)
  • 36. Sector Map, as of 12.07.2010
  • 37. Notification on utilization (utilization message), dated 26.07.2010; excel sheet, does not contain any figures after 17:00, for Sector V1 (tunnel) by police only two entries, Both with 100% at 13:00 and 14:00, Lopavent figures for V1 sector: 24% at 13:00 , 48% at 14:00, 82% at 15:00, data for arrivals at main train station mostly empty (only 2 figures), data entries over 100% apparently not existent
  • 38. Event Log, dated 25/07/2010, contains only pages 10-19 out of 53 pages, starts 24/07/2010 07:23, ends 24/07/2010 12:52
  • 39. Note (no. 733) on access blockage to the tunnel, written down at 25/07/2010 (01:09)
  • 40. picture taken during Loveparade at the ramp to the tunnel (no timestamp)
  • 41. picture taken during Loveparade at tunnel west (no timestamp)
  • 42. Letter of Inhabitant (witness) to City of Duisburg, dated 27.07.2010, description of the situation at Charles Street teaching – at tunnel entrance between 13: 00-16: 00, Describes how police allowed more people to enter the tunnel entrance Although it which visibly overcrowded (14:45), mentions did 3 policemen in Charles Street 159 teachers were videotaping Several hours this situation

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