Being UK based, out initial focus will be on UK guidance. We are looking to add as much content as possible, so please email us any links or guidance from around the globe and we will look to get it added.

THE CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF CROWD DISASTERS by John J. Fruin, Ph.D., P.E. United States of America


(Courtesy of the Crowd Library)



Spatio-temporal crowd density model in a human detection and tracking framework

Hajer Fradi , Volker Eiselein , Jean-LucDugelay , IvoKeller , ThomasSikora 


Code of Practice for Safety at Outdoor Pop Concerts 1996

Managing Risk for Public Events Guidance for organising Gathering 2013 events

Health Service Executive Requirements and Guidance for Outdoor Crowd Events

Event safety management plan for A Small/ Medium Scale Event

Code of Practice for Safety at Indoor Concerts

Code of practice for Safety at Sports Grounds

Wexford County Council
Events Management Guide

A Guide for the Planning & Organisation of Community Festivals & other Events

Causeway Coast & Glens Borough Council


Crowds inside out: Understanding crowds from the perspective of individual crowd members’ experiences

Li, J. (TU Delft Human Information Communication Design)

With the growth of global population, the big cities become increasingly crowded. It is not rare to see large crowds in public transportations and events with masses of visitors, such as music festivals and football matches. The question “How to deal with crowds” is receiving attention, both from academia and practical crowd management.This thesis aims at contributing to a better understanding of crowds from the perspective of individual crowd members’ experiences, including their well- being, emotional experiences and action tendencies. In addition, we want to understand the emotional contagion effect between groups in crowds. To achieve this, we chose to go into the crowds, get in touch with the crowd members, and try to find out what factors sustain their well-being, how their emotional experiences can be measured in a playful and non-intrusive manner, what they tend to do when they have certain emotions, and how the grouping behavior reflects their experiences.

Estimate Sentiment of Crowds from Social Media during City Events

Gong, X. (TU Delft Transport and Planning)
Daamen, W. (TU Delft Transport and Planning)
Bozzon, A. (TU Delft Internet of Things)
Hoogendoorn, S.P. (TU Delft Transport and Planning

City events are being organized more frequently, and with larger crowds, in urban areas. There is an increased need for novel methods and tools that can provide information on the sentiments of crowds as an input for crowd management. Previous work has explored sentiment analysis and a large number of methods have been proposed relating to various contexts. None of them, however, aimed at deriving the sentiments of crowds using social media in city events, and no existing event-based dataset is available for such studies. This paper investigates how social media can be used to estimate the sentiments of crowds in city events. First, some lexicon-based and machine learning-based methods were selected to perform sentiment analyses, then an event-based sentiment annotated dataset was constructed. The performance of the selected methods was trained and tested in an experiment using common and event-based datasets. Results show that the machine learning method LinearSVC achieves the lowest estimation error for sentiment analysis on social media in city events. The proposed event-based dataset is essential for training methods to reduce estimation error in such contexts.

Using Social Media for Attendees Density Estimation in City-Scale Events

Gong, X. (TU Delft Transport and Planning)
Yang, J. (University of Fribourg)
Daamen, W. (TU Delft Transport and Planning)
Bozzon, A. (TU Delft Web Information Systems)
Hoogendoorn, S.P. (TU Delft Transport and Planning)
Houben, G.J.P.M. (TU Delft Web Information Systems)

City-scale events attract large amounts of attendees in temporarily re-purposed urban environments. In this setting, the real-time measurement of the density of attendees stationing in – or moving through – the event terrain is central to applications such as crowd management, emergency support, and quality of service evaluation. Sensing or communication infrastructures (e.g. sensor networks, mobile phones) can be deployed to estimate the number of attendees currently occupying an area. However, the adoption of these technologies is hindered by their cost or sensing resolution. There is evidence that social media data can provide a real-time and semantically rich insight into attendees’ behaviour during city-scale events. Their suitability as a data source for attendees density estimation is yet to be investigated. With this paper we aim at filling this knowledge gap by studying how micro-posts harvested from social media can be used during city-scale events to estimate the density of attendees in a given terrain. To cope with issues of temporal and spatial resolution, we propose 3 classes of density estimation strategies, i.e. geo-based, speed-based and flow-based strategy, inspired by elements of pedestrian traffic flow theory that were successfully assessed during city-scale events. We study the performance of these strategies in the context of SAIL Amsterdam 2015 (Sail) and Kingsday Amsterdam 2016 (Kingsday), two city-scale events that attracted 2 and 1.5 million of attendees in the span of 5 days and 1 day, respectively. We defined four experimental terrains for the Sail event and one for the Kingsday event, and compare density estimates from social media data with measures obtained from counting systems and Wi-Fi sensors. Results show the potential of solutions embedding elements from pedestrian traffic flow theory, which yielded estimates with strong temporal correlations with the sensor observation, and limited mean errors.

Analysis and Modelling of Pedestrian Movement Dynamics at Large-scale Events

Duives, D.C. (TU Delft Transport and Planning)

To what extent can we model the movements of pedestrians who walk across a large-scale event terrain? This dissertation answers this question by analysing the operational movement dynamics of pedestrians in crowds at several large music and sport events in the Netherlands and extracting the key crowd movement phenomena. A conceptual model and an assessment framework for pedestrian simulation models are developed specifically to describe and simulate this type of movement dynamics.

Sports crowd violence: An interdisciplinary synthesis

Ramón Spaaij

A landscape of crowd-management support: an integrative approach

NandaWijermansClaudineConradoMaartenvan SteenClaudioMartellaJieLi

Analysing the Effectiveness of Wearable Wireless Sensors in Controlling Crowd Disasters

Teo Yu Hui Angela, Vaisagh Viswanathan, Michael Lees, and Wentong Cai

Designing for Crowd Well-Being: Current Designs, Strategies and Future Design Suggestions

Jie Li, Huib de Ridder, Arnold Vermeeren, Claudine Conrado, Claudio Martella

Introduction to Crowd Science 

Prof. Dr. G. Keith Still FIMA FICPEM SFIIRSM MEWI FIPM FHEA, Capt. Marcel Altenburg MA PGDip

National Counterterrorism Strategy for 2016-2020

HEV 2018: procesmodel evenementenveiligheid

HEV 2018: procesmodel evenementenveiligheid

01 en 02 versie 2011.10.01 Handreiking Evenementenveiligheid2011, deel I en II, versie 1.0

04 versie 2011.11.08 Handreiking Evenementenveiligheid 2011, deel IV, versie 0.9, Evenement Assistent


Dr Tom Smith- Pyrotechnics in Stadia Health and Safety issues relating to the use of pyrotechnics in football stadia

UEFA Stadium Infrastructure Regulations 2010

UEFA Safety and Security Regulations



Crowd behaviors analysis and abnormal detection based on surveillance data

Jing Cui , WeibinLiu , WeiweiXing

An energy based method to measure the crowd safety

Haodong Yin, Dewei Li, Xuanchuan Zhengc


Q. Zhang, M. Liu, J. Liu and G. Zhao 

A multi-grid model for pedestrian evacuation in a room without visibility

Shuchao Cao, Weiguo Song , Wei Lv, Zhiming Fang

Modeling the pedestrian’s movement and simulating evacuation dynamics on stairs

Unchain Qu, Ziyou Gao, Yao Xiao, Xingang Li

Prediction and Diversion Mechanisms for Crowd Management Based on Risk Rating

Meihua Zhang, Yuan Yao, Kefan Xie

Governing Security at the 2008 Beijing Olympics

Ying Yu, Francisco Klauser and Gerald Chan

Crowd Detection in Mass Gatherings Based on Social Media Data: A Case Study of the 2014 Shanghai New Year’s Eve Stampede

Jiexiong Duan  , Weixin Zhai  and Chengqi Cheng 


Crowd management using fuzzy logic and G.I.S

Managing Crowds  A Guide for Administrators and Organizers of  Events and Venues

Crowd Management and Public Safety in India-A New Policy Initiative

Dr. R. K. Dave

A review of studies on understanding crowd dynamics in the context of crowd safety in mass religious gatherings

H. Gayathri, P.M. Aparna, Ashish Verma 

New Zealand

Event security planning guidelines

Guidelines for Managing Alcohol at Large Events

Understanding behaviour in the Australian and New Zealand night-time economies

An anthropological study by Dr Anne Fox

Safety Planning Guidelines for Events

Guidelines for Events

Guidelines: Event Safety Risk Assessment and Management Plan


Kristin  J. Hoskin, Michael Spearpoint

A guide to preparing an Alcohol Management Plan (AMP) for special events

A guide to preparing an Alcohol Management Plan (AMP) for special events

Mobile Crowd Mapping

Jukka M. Krisp, Alan Kwok Lun Cheung

When the crowd goes wild

Fire Protection and Evacuation Procedures of Stadia Venues in New Zealand

The culture of alcohol promotion and consumption at major sports events in New Zealand 

Saudi Arabia

Real-time crowd density mapping using a novel sensory fusion model of infrared and visual systems

S. Yaseen, A.Al-Habaibeh, D.Su, F.Otham

Hajj Crowd Management and Navigation System People Tracking and Location Based Services via Integrated Mobile and RFID Systems

Ricardo O. Mitchell, Hammad Rashid, Fakir Dawood & Ali AlKhalidi 

Social identification moderates the effect of crowd density on safety at the Hajj

Hani Alnabulsi,  and John Drury


Abdulaziz Mousa Aljohani


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Sensors-based Crisis Response and Management for Mass Gatherings: A Case of Hajj

Yasir Javed 

Numerical Simulation of the Flow of Crowds at the Jamarat Bridge during the Annual Hajj Event

Chokri Mnasri, Abdulsalam Farhat 

Reducing risks to health and wellbeing at mass gatherings: the role of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction

Amina Aitsi-Selmi, Virginia Murray, David Heymann, Brian McCloskey, Esam I. Azhar, Eskild Petersen, Alimuddin Zumla, Osman Dar

Saudi Arabia: A guid to the Hajj – Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Location Analysis of Mina Site: One of the Most Crowded Areas at Hajj

Ala Alluhaidan ,Alredhaiman, Afnan-Khaled. 

Role of Leadership in Disaster Management and Crowd Control

Ahmed Ammar, MBCHB, DMSc, FICS, FACS

An RFID-Based Pilgrim Identification System

Mohammed Mohandes, Maan Kousa, Ahmed A Hussain

Simulation of Crowd Behavior and Movement: Fundamental Relations and Application


Automated Solutions for Crowd Size Estimation

Muhammad Waqar Aziz, Farhan Naeem, Muhammad Hamad Alizai, and Khan Bahadar Khan

Crowd Choreographies

Madeline McHale Hartzell


Imran Khan, Robert D. McLeod 

Real-Time Crowd Density Mapping using a Novel Sensory Fusion Model of Infrared and Visual Systems

S. Yaseen A. Al-Habaibeh , D. Su. Otham

Crowd Density Estimation System for Al-Masjid Al-Haram

S. Eldursi, N. Alamoudi, F. Haron, F. Aljarbua and G. Albakri

People Counting in Extremely Dense Crowd using Blob Size Optimization

Muhammad Arif, Sultan Daud, Saleh Basalamah

Integration of Background Removal and Thermography Techniques for Crowd Density Scrutinizing

Adnan Ghazi Abuarafah1and Mohamed Osama Khozium
Vice Dean for Academic Affairs, Faculty of Computer of and IS, UQU. Makkah, KSA.
Department of Engineering and applied science – computers, MCC, UQU. Makkah, KSA.

Center of Research Excellence in Hajj and Omrah (HajjCoRE), UQU, Makkah, KSA.

Humanitarian Logistics and Cultural Diversity within Crowd Simulation

Alberto Ochoa, Isaac Rudomin, Genoveva Vargas-Solar, Javier A. Espinosa-Oviedo, Hugo Pérez, José-Luis Zechinelli-Martini 

South Africa

Safety at sports and recreational events  ACT

Public safety planning/guidelines for major events

Safety Guidelines for the Events Industry

Guidelines for Staging Events within the Greater Knysna Municipality District

Sustainable Mega-Events in developing countries

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