Referencing to assist crowd safety managers in relation to events within the United kingdom. We have gathered together relevant referencing material to assist your planning and research.
Pyrotechnics in crowded places
The Policing and Crime Act 2017 (“the 2017 Act”) received Royal Assent on 31 January. The 2017 Act contains a wide range of measures to:
- improve the efficiency and effectiveness of police forces, including through closer collaboration with other emergency services;
- enhance the democratic accountability of police forces and fire and rescue services;
- build public confidence in policing;
- strengthen the protections for persons under investigation by, or who come
intocontactwith, the police;
- ensure that the police and other law enforcement agencies have the powers they need to prevent, detect and investigate crime; and
furthersafeguard children and young people from sexual exploitation.
What is the law governing smoke bombs and flares at football matches?
The Sporting Events (Control of Alcohol etc.)
It is on offence for a person to enter or attempt to enter a football ground while in possession of a flare, smoke bomb or firework. The sentence for these offences can be as much as three months in prison, and in many cases, fans who have no previous convictions are being given prison sentences for attempting to enter a football ground with a smoke bomb in their pocket as the courts take these offences very seriously.
There are two different offences (1) possession in the football ground; and (2) possession while attempting to enter. Although logically, attempting to enter a football ground seems to be less culpable than a fan who has managed to get the smoke bomb, flare or firework into the football ground, in real terms the courts do not consider one offence to be more serious than the other. Fans searched prior to entering the football ground and found to be in possession of a firework, flare or smoke bomb, have still been given custodial sentences.
Policing minister: You’re putting supporters’ safety at risk.
Laser pointers are small
The misuse of laser pointers (sometimes referred to as laser pens) reported in the press has generated public concern over the safety of these devices. The following provides basic information on the properties of laser radiation, the different laser Classes and summarises the HPA position on the issue of the safety of laser pointers. The advice from the HPA takes account of the current British Standard for laser
NRPB provided advice to the Department of Trade and Industry concerning the safety of hand-held laser pointers and the optical hazards posed by the use of these products.
Adrian Cheuk Hei LeeDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London
Lasers are important in our world and their use is increasing. They are useful and powerful devices under normal and responsible operations, but misuse of lasers can pose
Over the past few
Unmanned Ariel Vehicles
House of Commons
Science and Technology Committee
Twenty-Second Report of Session 2017–19
Drones—also referred to as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAs) or Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs)—have been the focus of significant media attention. Reports of drone sightings at Gatwick Airport in December 2018 caused significant disruption and highlighted the need for further recognition of the substantial rise in the purchase and use of commercial and civilian drones more widely.
HOUSE OF LORDS
European Union Committee 7th Report of Session 2014-15
Drones, or remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS), as they are described in this report, are no longer used solely by the military. In the UK alone, there are now hundreds of companies, mainly SMEs, using RPAS to provide a range of services, including photography, land surveying, building inspection and crop analysis. RPAS will revolutionise what the aviation industry can achieve and how it is regulated. Europe must act now in order to reap the future benefits of this exciting new technology.
This guidance supports individual Force Policies for the prosecution and recording of incidents involving drones.
SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT OPERATION IN JERSEY
This guide has been put together by Jersey Air Traffic Control in conjunction with the Jersey Director of Civil Aviation (DCA) and the Jersey Model Aero Club to provide guidance to operators of Small ‘Unmanned’ Aircraft (SUA) and Small ‘Unmanned’ Surveillance Aircraft (SUSA) who wish to operate on Jersey.
Thomas Mu ̈ller and Markus Mu ̈ller
Fraunhofer Institute IOSB, Fraunhoferstrasse 1, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
Object tracking is a direct or indirect key issue in many different military applications like visual surveillance, automatic visual closed-loop control of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) and PTZ-cameras, or in the field of crowd evaluations in order to detect or analyse a riot emergence. Of course,
In order to optimize the calculation time and the robustness in combination as far as possible, a highly efficient tracking procedure is presented for the
Drones, also known as mini-unmanned aerial vehicles, have attracted increasing attention due to their boundless applications in communications, photography, agriculture, surveillance and numerous public services. However, the deployment of amateur drones poses various safety, security and privacy threats. To cope with these challenges, amateur drone surveillance becomes a very important but largely unexplored topic. In this article, we firstly present a brief survey to show the state-of-the-art studies on amateur drone surveillance. Then, we propose a vision, named Dragnet, by tailoring the recent emerging cognitive internet of things framework for amateur drone surveillance. Next, we discuss the key enabling techniques for Dragnet in details, accompanied
College of Security and Intelligence, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University A Paper Presented at the
Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace International Research (A3iR) Conference Phoenix, AZ
Thinking Rather than Panicking about the Current Drone Threat
Drones pose a number of threats to venues with large crowds. To better prepare and respond to these threats, the problems drones may cause should be broken down to allow different actors with different interests to develop different strategies for dealing with these threats. To maximize efficiency and effectiveness, the variety of strategies should be complementary and synergistic. This document seeks to establish different strategies for the interested parties and provide some insight for how to formulate and operationalize
Aerial drone photography has become popular throughout the first decade of the 21st century, with the technology getting ever more affordable and easy-to-use. It is employed for a variety of goals, ranging from military and surveillance tasks to the so-called drone and citizen journalism, from sports coverage to artistic usages and even product delivery. In the present
Naser Hossein Motlagh, Miloud
Unmanned aerial vehicles are gaining a lot of popularity among an
University of San Diego
Dana Chavarria Elizabeth Cychosz John Paul Dingens Michael Du ey Katherine Koebel Sirisack Siriphanh Merlyn Yurika Tulen Heath Watanabe Tautvydas Juskauskas John Holland Lars Almquist
- We report on 1,145 discrete cases of drone use, drawn from careful analysis of 15,000 news reports covering six years (2009-2015) of all uses except weaponized military use.
- Drones are being used in more than half of the world’s countries (108) and by a growing number of international actors and everyday individuals.
- e year 2012 was a breakout period that saw non-military use overtake military use.
- e United States sees more reported drone use every year than any other country.
- Government users represent the single largest category of users.
- Scienti c Research represents the single largest category of use.
- Commercial, emergency services, health and public safety, and environmental conservation sectors are growing.
- Legislation is sparse and
- Twenty-eight U.S. states have passed forty-one UAV-related laws.
- Several dozen countries have some form of legislation covering drones, with the
- Most regulations focuses on controlling weight, altitude, distance, no- y zones,and operator certi cation.
- ere is no consensus policy on non-military drone use.
Crowds and Crowd Management
SIU YAM ZACHARY AU
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial
for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.
This thesis considers the subject of crowd safety and investigates how the application of risk assessment can provide support for decision making in crowd safety management and planning. The focus is on major public venues and events where large crowds arc a normal part of the operation.
Conventional methods of assessment tend to be ad hoc, reactive and rely on individual experiences. The risk assessment approach, which is comprehensive, systematic and pro-active, can help to overcome these shortfalls. Risk assessments have already been successfully applied in many workplaces, ranging from high hazard industrial plants to the office environment. However, this thesis argues that for it to be of benefit, the risk assessment must be appropriate to the nature of the operation and the nature and the extent of the hazards involved. The existing risk assessments are inappropriate to crowd safety in this respect and a more suitable methodology is required. Therefore, the specific aims of the thesis are:
(i) To show that risk assessment can be applied to crowd safety and that it can improve on the conventional crowd safety assessments.
(ii) To investigate, through the development of a risk assessment methodology for crowd safety, how risk assessment can be best applied to support crowd safety management and planning.
(iii) To demonstrate that the methodology, which takes into consideration the nature of crowd safety risks, can lead to further improvements in crowd safety assessment.
The thesis describes the research work carried out to achieve these aims and presents the outcomes. The first part of the research is devoted to identifying the differences in terms of the hazards between the various work environments and crowd safety. It also looks at the assessment of crowd safety hazards and their risks. As there is little published research knowledge on the subject, two case studies and a survey of public venue assessors were conducted to collect the necessary information and data. A task analysis was also performed to examine the tasks involved in assessing crowd safety risks and identify the factors that enable the assessors to successfully complete their tasks. It has found that crowd safety hazards are very different
of the venue survey suggest that existing risk assessments are inadequate, particularly in dealing with this type of crowd and behaviour related hazards, and venue assessors are experiencing difficulties in identifying such hazards and assessing their risks. As a summary of the research findings so far, a set of criteria was drawn up to highlight what is needed in a risk assessment suitable for crowd safety.
In order to identify the methods and tools that could provide
Experiments and a questionnaire survey were then carried out on the final draft to test and verify the methodology. In general, they show that the methodology has led to an improvement in most aspects of crowd safety risk assessment. In the experiments that compared the methodology against methods representing the existing risk assessments and the conventional way of assessing crowd safety, subjects using the methodology tend to perform better in most areas. More hazards were identified. In the evaluation of risks, better consistency was achieved between individuals using the methodology. However, their judgements appeared to be less consistent over time. The use of a larger rating scheme with more choices available in the methodology could have an impact on consistency in risk evaluation. Another key factor could be that the subjects who took part in the experiments were all novice assessors. Possible learning effect may have occurred in between experiments, which could have resulted in a
change of mind over time. If this is the case, this result could be an indication that the methodology is more sensitive to changes in risks or risk perception. It will be interesting to find out if experienced assessors can achieve better consistency. In the questionnaire survey where only a small number of experienced assessors were involved, the results were also favourable to the methodology. All assessors regarded the hazard identification and risk evaluation methods in the final draft as useful or very useful. Compared to their own risk assessment methods that they were using at the time, the vast majority of them found that the proposed methods were either better or much better.
By and large, the experiments and questionnaire survey have served to verify, at least in part, the arguments that risk assessment is better than the conventional assessment method and that there are more benefits to be gained when the risk assessment is more appropriate to the nature and the extent of the crowd safety hazards that could arise in major public venues. Nevertheless, it is important to recognise that the research work presented in this thesis is merely the first step towards a crowd safety risk assessment
methodology. There are outstanding issues yet to be resolved, not least the issue of the apparent lack of consistency over time in risk evaluation. This thesis has identified the research and development work that is required to resolve these issues and to further the benefits that risk assessment could bring to crowd safety.
School of Human, Health and Social Sciences CQ University, Australia
Attendance at outdoor music festivals is associated with an
increased risk of injury and death. A considerable proportion of
crowd-related risks are attributed to irrational and high-risk
behaviour by patrons, especially in the general admission, or
standing room only, areas in front of stages, or ‘mosh pits’. Risk
assessments for music festivals and mass gatherings generally tend
to deal with the traditional hazards and risks found at most
workplaces, without taking into account the dynamics of the crowd
or those factors that influence its behaviour. Influences on crowd
behaviour are little understood and generally ignored, leaving a
significant source of risk at this type of event unaccounted for. A
comprehensive approach to crowd safety assessment, design and
management needs to integrate both psychological and engineering
frames of reference. This paper outlines a model that can be used as
the basis for developing a contextualised methodology and
instrument for assessing crowd related risks at outdoor music
Alfredo Cigada, Emanuele Zappa
Abstract- The goal of this paper is to introduce an innovative and
quantitative measurement technique, useful for the estimation of the
people motion on stadia stands, at least under a statistical point of
view. The authors propose and qualify here an
motion estimation: the idea is to measure the “motion level” of the
people through the analysis of images grabbed with common video
cameras or with an infrared thermal imager. Cameras working in
the visible wavelength range usually have a higher resolution than
thermal cameras and are much cheaper, due to
often preferred for the estimation of people motion in case of events
held during the day (i.e. with stable lighting conditions);
Norazlina Rahmat, Kamaruzaman Jusoff, Norzaidah Ngali, Noorazlin Ramli, Zetty Madina Md Zaini, Azlina Samsudin, Fatimah Abd Ghani and Munirah Hamid
Abstract: High risk of injuries and accidents among attendees at event, especially Sports Tourism Event has become one of the major concerns to researchers and practitioners. One of the major strategies to ensure
attendees safety is by
Dr Aldo Raineri
Mass gatherings are planned or spontaneous events where the number of people attending is sufficient to strain the planning and response resources of the host. They are characterised by the concentration of people, generally on a predictable basis, in venues or precincts that are open or enclosed. Examples include sporting (e.g. Summer and Winter Olympics, FIFA World Cup) and religious (e.g. Hajj, World Youth Day) events, cultural festivals and music festivals. Mass gatherings can also occur at train stations (e.g. London Underground, Paris Metro), shopping complexes (e.g. IKEA opening in London, annual store sales), business precincts and tourist attractions. A number of studies and official inquiries have identified inadequate planning as a major contributory factor to deficiencies in crowd safety at mass gatherings.
Proper planning involves an assessment of attendant safety risks using traditional risk assessment methods. These generally tend to deal with the hazards and risks usually found at most workplaces without taking into account the dynamics of the crowd or those factors that influence its behaviour. Insufficient attention to the way that people behave in a crowd, and the relationship between behaviour and system design, are major factors in crowd disasters. Due to the sheer number of attendees, the nature of
With the growth of
Dirk Helbing, Anders Johansson, HE Habib Z. Al-Abideen
The panic stampede is a serious concern during mass events like soccer championship games. Despite huge numbers of security forces and crowd control measures, hundreds of lives are lost in crowd disasters each year. An analysis of video recordings of the annual pilgrimage in Makkah reveals how high-density crowds develop to turbulent dynamics and earthquake-like eruptions, which is impossible to control.
S Y Z Au, M C Ryan, M S Carey and S P Whalley
No introduction provided
Dirk Helbing, Anders Johansson, Habib Zein Al-Abideen
Many observations in the dynamics of pedestrian crowds, including various self-organization
stop-and-go flows supports a recent model of bottleneck flows [D. Helbing et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.
97, 168001 (2006)], the subsequent transition to turbulent flow is not yet well understood. It is
displacements and the falling and trampling of people. The insights of this study into the reasons
for critical crowd conditions are important for the organization of safer mass events. In
they allow one to understand where and when crowd accidents tend to occur. They have also led
to organizational changes, which have ensured a safe Hajj in 1427H.
Victoria L. Kendrick
This thesis is concerned with the user experience of crowds, incorporating issues of comfort, satisfaction, safety and performance within a given crowd situation. Factors that influence the organisation and monitoring of crowd events will be considered.
A comprehensive review of the literature revealed that crowd safety, pedestrian flow
Original research undertaken for this doctoral thesis involved a series of studies: user focus groups, stakeholder interviews, and observational research within event security and organisation. Following on from these investigations, the findings have been integrated with a tool to assist crowd organisers and deliverers during the planning of crowd events, and accompanying user feedback interviews following
The crowd user focus groups revealed differences in factors affecting crowd satisfaction, varying according to age and user expectations. Greater differences existed between crowd
Stakeholder interviews examining crowds from another perspective suggested that overall safety was a high priority due to legal obligations, in order to protect venue reputation. Whereas, comfort and satisfaction received less attention within the organisation of crowd events due to budget considerations, and a lack of concern as to the importance of such issues. Moreover, communication and management systems were sometimes inadequate to ensure compliance with internal procedures.
Eleven themes were summarised from the data, placed in order of frequency of references to the issues: health and safety, public order, communication, physical environment, public relations, crowd movement, event capacity, facilities, satisfaction, comfort, and crowd characteristics. Results were in line with the weighting of the issues within the literature, with health and safety receiving the most attention, and comfort and satisfaction less attention. These results were used to form the basis of observational checklists for event observations across various crowd situations. Event observations took two forms: observing the role of public and private security, and observing crowd events from the user perspective.
Observations within public and private security identified seven general themes: communication, anticipating crowd reaction, information, storage, training, role confusion, financial considerations and professionalism. Findings questioned the clarity of the differing roles of public and private security, and understanding of these differences.
Event observations identified fifteen common themes drawn from the data analysis: communication, public order, comfort, facilities, queuing systems, transportation, crowd movement, design, satisfaction, health and safety, public relations, event capacity, time constraints, encumbrances, and cultural differences. Key issues included the layout of the event venue together with the movement and monitoring of crowd users, as well as the availability of facilities in order to reduce competition between crowd users, together with possible links to maintaining public order and reducing anti-social behaviour during crowd events.
Findings from the focus groups, interviews, and observations were then combined (to enhance the robustness of the findings
Feedback interviews suggested the CSAT was a useful concept, aiding communication, and providing organisers with a systematic and methodical structure for planning ahead, prioritising ideas, and highlighting areas of concern. The CSAT was described as being clear and easy to follow, with clear aims, and clear instructions for completion, and was felt to aid communication between the various stakeholders involved in the organisation and management of an event, allowing information to be recorded, stored and shared between stakeholders, with the aim of preventing the loss of crucial information.
The thesis concludes with a summary model of the factors that influence crowd satisfaction within crowd events of various descriptions. Key elements of this are the anticipation, facilities, and planning considered before an event, influences and monitoring during an event and reflection after an event.
The relevance and impact of this research is to assist the planning of crowd events, with the overall aim of improving participant satisfaction during crowd events. From a business
Recent accidents [News, 2006, 2010, 2013, 2015] show that crowded events can quickly turn into tragedies. The goal of crowd management is to avoid such accidents through careful planning and implementation. Crowd management practices are collaborative efforts between the different actors of the crowd management team and the crowd that depend on effective handling, sharing, and communication of information. Safety and comfort of a crowd depend on the success of such efforts. We have studied current practices and the role of technology through interviews
In crowded large space buildings, safety is one of the most important concerns for facilities managers. Within the built environment, safety has been classified into two main parts: objective safety (normative and substantive) and subjective safety (perceived). A lot of emphasis has been given to objective safety, but research has shown that subjective safety could be equally important and cannot be overlooked. A flow of risk factors within crowded large space buildings such as sports stadiums, concert halls, and religious buildings have resulted in crowd disasters in various venues across the world. Every user in such facilities during mass gathering can be exposed to safety risks, which can be mitigated by using effective risk management as a component of facilities management. This paper focused on subjective safety and aimed to validate the measurement model of latent constructs measuring 12 risk constructs of perceived safety in crowded large space buildings. Two theoretical frameworks (FIST and Six dimensions and loci of crowd disaster) and other relevant literature were used to generate items for the respective constructs. The research chose to use the Holy Mosque in Makkah as a case study (crowded large space building), which is 356,800 square metres with a maximum capacity of two million users (pilgrims). Data was collected using iPad devices via a group-administered questionnaire distributed to 1,940 pilgrims across 62 different nationalities. The data
Prof Dr Mike King
There has been some significant debate over the last decade concerning a purported trend in ‘Western’ public order policing policy and practices away from a primarily reactive, confrontational and protester dispersal model, to one that is based more within the notion of de-escalation of conflict, entailing intelligence-led policing, mutual communication and negotiated accommodation, i.e. towards the ‘management’ of crowds. The reasons for such a shift have been located variously within a general movement towards a more liberal democratic society in these countries, and the process of social change generally, resulting in an increasing movement from modern to advanced-modern society. Again, the reasons why the police are involved in this developmental change is seen as being due to their relationship with the state, concerns about legitimate action and
Robin Ammon, Kimberly L. Mahoney, Gil Fried, Khadija Al Arkoubi, Dale Finn
In sport the safety of staff, participants and spectators is of the utmost importance. Therefore,
sport venue and event managers should take every precaution to address safety concerns while planning for and executing events or activities. While venue managers have a legal duty to protect fans and participants, federal regulations exist to ensure a safe workplace for all employees, including those at a sports event. This is a conceptual article intended to assist practitioners to identify potentially unexpected hazards within the work environment, as well as strategies to eliminate or manage them. The authors examine existing federal regulations, current research associated with hearing/noise-related concerns and specific research undertaken in the sport environment. The article concludes with recommended prevention strategies for facility and event managers to assist them in meeting their professional and legal obligations.
Meihua Zhang, Yuan Yao, Kefan Xie
Studies of past accidents have revealed that various elements such as failure to identify hazards, crowd
Muhammad Irfan, Lucio Marcenaro, Laurissa Tokarchuk
This paper proposes a critical survey of crowd analysis techniques using visual and non-visual sensors. Automatic crowd understand- ing has a massive impact on several applications including
Background Information: Outdoor music festivals (
Allison E Gocotano,
Between January 15 and 19, 2015, Pope Francis visited the Philippines. On January 17 the Pope visited the cities of Palo and Tacloban, which coincided with the landfall of
SACHA REID and BRENT RITCHIE
Events draw large crowds of people together within defined spaces and as such have the potential to have significant impacts. Occupational health and safety requirements,
Teck Hou (DENG Dehao) TENG, Shih-Fen CHENG, Nghia TRUONG TRONG, Hoong Chuin LAU
In a large indoor environment such as a sports arena or convention
Roger L. Hughes
The modern study of a crowd as a flowing continuum is a recent
Stacey Hall, Lou Marciani, Walter Cooper and Jerry Phillips
High profile sports events have been identified by the Department of Homeland Security as potential terrorist targets (Lipton, 2005). According to Webb (2007), college sports events attract huge crowds and are an inviting terrorist target for mass casualties and media coverage. In addition to terrorism, sport facility managers are concerned with inclement weather, alcohol problems, and crowd management issues (Fried, 2005). However, previous research indicates a lack of training and education for key personnel responsible for responding to emergency incidents at college sports events (Baker, Connaughton, Zhang, & Spengler, 2007; Beckman, 2006; Cunningham, 2007; Hall, 2006). The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine the needs, concerns, and future challenges in security management at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football events. The population for this study was limited to NCAA Division I intercollegiate athletic facility managers (n=235). Athletic facility managers have been identified as one of the key personnel responsible for security management operations at college football events (Hall). A total of 83 complete surveys were returned for a 35.4% response rate. The survey obtained general information on the institution, football
Rohini J Haar, Vincent Iacopino, Nikhil Ranadive, Madhavi Dandu
Objective We conducted a systematic review of the available literature on deaths, injuries and permanent disability from rubber and plastic bullets, as well as from bean bag rounds, shot pellets and other projectiles used in arrests, protests and other contexts from 1 January 1990 until 1 June 2017.
Najihah Ibrahim and Fadratul Hafinaz Hassan
Crowd management is the human-traffic problem-solving for crowd control to manage the crowd activities by monitoring, simulating and designing model. This concept paper is to discuss
Mark David Major, Alan Penn, Georgia Spiliopoulou, Natasa Spende, Maria Doxa and Polly s.p. Fong
The paper describes a three-year study of the crowd behaviour in Trafalgar Square and central London during the New Year’s Eve celebrations. The objectives of the study were to: identify the characteristics of crowd movement, density and congregation, and how this might be related to spatial layout; evaluate how this might impact on issues of public safety, in consultation with risk management experts; and, develop effective crowd management measures in preparation for the 1999 Millennium New Year’s Eve celebrations. The study is a useful demonstration of how the well- established observational techniques of the Space Syntax Scientific Research Programme (SRP) have evolved in recent years to enable researchers to investigate the relationship between crowd behaviour and urban morphology. This evolution was necessary because of the inherent problems associated with studying crowds. The resolution adopted was a more balanced approach to data collection, incorporating both quantitative and qualitative observations, the benefits and limitations of which approach are discussed.
Just as any project planning process event production involves a tremendous amount of uncertainties in various areas and stages of planning: unpredictable weather conditions, equipment failure, sponsorship withdraw, emergency cases, artists’illnesses and etc. Bowdin (2011, 4) fairly pointed out that there is no event without risks. Event industry is a
MANDU AGNES WANJIKU
Spectator violence in stadiums is part of a larger set of problems related to misbehaviour in football and it has resulted
The management strategies the study sought to assess were mainly on security arrangements in terms of the pre-event, event and post-event preparations and arrangements.
The target population for the study comprised of 64 staff working at Moi International Sports Centre (MISC) and Nyayo National Stadium (NNS), 24 Football Kenya Federation (FKF) officials at National and Nairobi County levels, 304 police officers stationed at Kasarani Police division, Ngomongo Police Post, Langata Police division and Nyayo National Stadium Police Post. Sample size for football fans was calculated at 384 using Fishers’ formula since the total population for both MISC (60,000) and NNS (30,000) was estimated at 90,000.
Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the respondents, to ensure a fair representation of all the target groups. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The data collected was summarized into descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages. Data presentation was carried out using graphs, bar- charts, tables and pie-charts. The null hypotheses were tested using chi-square at p < 0.05 level of association/agreement using SPSS version 20.
Findings revealed there was a level of agreement between the security/safety service personnel and football fans on the adequacy of stadia safety features where a higher proportion of both were of the opinion that the safety features were partially adequate. On pre-event
Jie Li, Huib de Ridder, Arnold Vermeeren, Claudine Conrado, Claudio Martella
This paper introduces the concept of crowd well-being and the needs for sustaining it. Crowd well-being can be interpreted as crowd members’ evaluations on their emotional reactions, moods and judgments they form about their satisfactions, goals or needs
S. K. Shah, Sharley Kulkarni
At present, there are so many problems regarding the crowd control, medical emergencies, security issues, identification and tracking of the pilgrims in the holy areas. Especially during pilgrimage, the pilgrimage authority finds it difficult to manage the situation. Thus, in order to identify, track and monitor pilgrims a system is needed. In this
L.J.M. Rothkrantz, Z.Yang
One of the goals of the crowd control project at Delft University of Technology is to detect and track people during a crisis event, classify their
Haodong Yina, Dewei Li, Xuanchuan Zheng
How to evaluate crowd safety in crowded areas is a tough, but important, problem. According to accident-causing theory, uncontrolled release of hazardous energy among overcrowded pedestrians is the basic cause of crowd disaster. Therefore, crowd energy is
The purpose of this paper is to describe empirical research intended to gauge the channels of risk information and their perceived effectiveness expressed by Hajj pilgrims in 2013 to better inform risk-reduction strategies at crowded religious events.
Chad Whelan & Adam Molnar
The article examines the configurations and organisational dynamics of policing mega-events through the metaphor of ‘flows’. Using the Brisbane 2014 Group of 20 Summit (G20) as an explorative case study, we suggest that the metaphor of flows may not only hold value with regard to understanding how objects of policing are rendered visible and
Sheila A. Turris, NP, PhD; Adam Lund, MD, MEd, FRCPC
Objective: Deaths at music festivals are not infrequently reported in the media; however, the true mortality burden is difficult to determine as the deaths are not yet systematically documented in the academic literature. Methods: This was a literature search for case examples using academic and
(PDF) Mortality at Music Festivals: Academic and Grey Literature for Case Finding.
Shahriar Akter, Samuel Fosso Wamba
The era of big data and analytics is opening up new possibilities for disaster management (DM). Due to its ability to visualize, analyze and predict disasters, big data is changing the humanitarian operations and crisis management dramatically. Yet, the relevant literature is diverse and fragmented, which calls for its review in order to ascertain its development. A number of publications have dealt with the subject of big data and its applications for minimizing disasters. Based on a systematic literature review, this study examines big data in DM to present main contributions, gaps, challenges and future research agenda. The study presents the findings in terms of yearly distribution, main journals, and most cited papers. The findings also show a classification of publications,
Ke-Cai Cao, YangQuan Chen, Dan Stuart
Tragedies due to people’s crushing or trampling have been observed in recent years. In order to understand the reasons that lead to these accidents, a lot of research has been conducted in
NORRIS R. JOHNSON
In life-threatening situations, such as a fire in a movie
Ziad A. Memish and Qanta A. A. Ahmed
Each year some 2 million Muslims perform the hajj, the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. This mass
Edbert B. Hsu, MD, MPH; Frederick M. Burkle, Jr., MD, MPH, DTM
The tragic nature of the human stampede that took place in Phnom Penh, Cambodia on November 22,
Li Menglong, Peng Hongjian, Zhang Xinkang1, and Deng Luoping
Objective: Researching the main factors causing mass crowded stampede-trampling accidents in stadium and establishing a risk assessment system of mass crowded stampede-trampling accident in stadium. Method: Analyzing and studying the risk of mass crowded stampede-trampling accident in stadium in the way of logic inference, Delphi method, AHP, comprehensive analysis and demonstration analysis. Conclusions: The risk assessment indicator system of mass crowded stampede-trampling accident
Okoli, Al Chukwuma
Crowded situations are inherently disaster-prone. This is more so where there is no efficient contingency measures to ensure effective control of the crowd as well as efficient utilization of the hosting space. This paper examines human stampede as a typical instance of crowd disaster in Nigeria with a view to making recommendations for its mitigation. By way of qualitative discourse, predicated on relevant secondary sources, the paper observes that the occurrence of human stampede in Nigeria is as a result of failure or inadequacy of crowd management cum control in mass public events and gatherings. The paper posits that human stampede is a veritable threat to public safety and/or security in Nigeria in view of its dire consequences. The paper recommends a proactive, contingency approach to crowd control and management as a panacea to the problem.
Sindhu Kolli, Kamalakar Karlapalem
In places of reverence, wherein large crowds gather to have small time duration for individual solace, there is typically a long queue of people waiting for their turn. There have been cases of stampedes with significant loss of life and trauma during such situations because of lack of management of crowds. In this paper, we present MAMA a set of robotic agents that (i) can move at a height to (ii) provide direction and control the crowds to (iii) avoid situations for stampedes to occur. We
X.L. Zhang, W.G. Weng, H.Y. Yuan and J.G. Chen
Many tragic crowd disasters have happened across the world in recent years, such as the Phnom Penh stampede in Cambodia, crowd disaster in Mina/Makkah, and the Love Parade disaster in Germany, showing that management of mass events is a tough task for organizers. The study of unidirectional flow, one of the most common forms of motion in mass activities, is essential for safe organization of such events. In this paper, the properties of unidirectional flow in a crowded street during a real mass event in China are quantitatively investigated with sophisticated active infrared counters and an image processing method. A complete dataset of flow rates during the whole celebration is recorded, and a time series analysis gives new insight into such activities. The spatial analysis shows that the velocity and density of the crowd are inhomogeneous due to the boundary effect, whereas the flux is uniform. The estimated capacity of the street indicates that the maximum flow rate under normal condition should be between 1.73 and 1.98 /m/s, which is in good agreement with several field studies available in the existing literature. In consideration of the significant deviation among different studies, fundamental diagrams of dense crowds are also re-verified, and the results here are consistent with those from other field studies of unidirectional
Jing Shao, Chen Change Loy, Xiaogang Wang
Groups are the primary entities that make up a crowd. Understanding group-level dynamics and properties is thus scientifically important and practically useful in a wide range of applications, especially for crowd understanding. In this
Ankita Prasun, Prashansa Dixit
FD MADZIMBAMUTO, T MADAMOMBE
Objectives: To present a series of cases of survivors and non-survivors of traumatic asphyxia from a single mass casualty incident in Zimbabwe and a review of the literature.
Design: Descriptive case review.
Setting: Parirenyatwa Hospital is a tertiary referral 1 000 bed teaching hospital in Zimbabwe
Conclusion: The outcome
Tracy Hresko Pearl
Crowd-related injuries and deaths are startlingly common both in the United States and worldwide. They occur in a wide range of situations and at a vast array of venues: at music concerts, sporting events, and retail holiday sales, and in and around airports, subway platforms, and parking lots, among other locations. These “crowd crush” incidents, however, are extremely underreported and rarely litigated, masking the seriousness of this issue and making it difficult for the few victims who pursue legal recourse to recover damages. Given that there is virtually no statutory law in the United States pertaining to crowd management and control, crowd crush cases are based entirely in common law, most often in the law of negligence. Unfortunately, courts have consistently made a number of analytical errors in these cases, creating a line of jurisprudence that is both scientifically and legally problematic and that reduces incentives for venue owners and event managers to take steps to reduce the likelihood of future crowd injuries. In this paper, I (a) identify the most significant of these errors, (b) explain why they contravene crowd science, and (c) make a series of recommendations designed to bring crowd crush jurisprudence in line with modern science and level the playing field between plaintiffs and defendants in these cases.
Case Study Scenario: Hong Kong, January 2017
On a late January afternoon, Senior Officer Chan,1 of the Security Bureau of Hong Kong, strolled through Victoria Park. [Chan is a fictional character, but all other people named in this case are real and depicted as accurately as possible.] As he walked through the gardens, observing the afternoon crowds, his thoughts drifted to the upcoming Lunar New Year festivities. Tens of thousands of Hong Kong residents and visitors would celebrate the Chinese New Year later that month, and their safety
Reviews of mass gathering events have traditionally concentrated on crowd variables that affect the level and type of medical care needed. Crowd disasters at mass gathering events have not been fully researched and this review examines these aiming to provide future suggestions for event organisers, medical resource planners, and emergency services, including local hospital emergency departments
James R. Gill, MD, and Kristen Landi, MD
Nine people died of traumatic asphyxia due to an
Yu-Hsiang Hsieh, PhD, Ka Ming Ngai, MD, MPH,
Frederick M. Burkle Jr, MD, MPH, DTM, and Edbert B. Hsu, MD, MPH
The potential for deadly human stampedes to occur at any mass gathering event highlights this unique form of crowd disaster as deserving of special attention from both scientific and planning perspectives. Improved understanding of human stampedes is indispensable in the mitigation of this type of mass casualty. With relatively few peer-reviewed reports on deadly human stampedes, information from news reports and the Internet is essential to increased collective understanding. Without incorporating nontraditional sources, no other way to reasonably acquire sufficient data is available. This study analyzed human stampede events from 1980 to 2007 to identify epidemiological characteristics associated with increased mortality. A LexisNexis search was followed by sequential searches of multiple Internet-based English-language news agencies. Date, country, geographical region, time of occurrence, type of event, location, mechanism, number of participants, number injured, and number of deaths were recorded. Bivariate analyses of
Ven Jyn Kok, Mei Kuan Lim, Chee Seng Chan
Although the traits emerged in a mass gathering are often non-deliberative, the act of mass impulse may lead to
Andrea Petroczi, Robin Ammon, Tim Welland
The importance of sport and entertainment events in our global society has caused public and media attention to be focused on many diverse events around the world. This increased scrutiny has not only augmented public awareness of the various host
Due to the
Pietro Marino, Enzo Albergoni, Aida Andreassi, Gianluca Chiodini, Lucia Colombi, Cristina Corbetta, Gabriella Nucera, Marco Salmoiraghi, Alberto Zoli
Introduction. A mass gathering (MG) is when a large number of people come together in a particular location for a specific purpose. Expo 2015 was
Methods. Existing risk-assessment processes for MGs were used (the Arbon Predictive Score and Maurer Score) to define the expected resources and the impact on the health systems. The objective of the plan was to reduce the impact of the event by adopting the model of First Aid Points (advanced medical posts) deployed in the event site acting as ‘first health filters’ for the hospital network in Milan.
Results. Our data indicate that 13,579 visitors were rescued in the ‘Red Area’ from 1 May to 31 October (with an average of 73 cases per day); 9,501 of them needed initial treatment or observation time at the First Aid Points, 1,289 of them were hospitalised (1% Red code, 29% Yellow code, 70% Green code); 65% of patients (57% female, with a mean age of 37 years old) had medical problems. Fatigue,
Conclusions. Our study confirms that environmental factors, such as the weather, can contribute to large numbers of ill people at MGs. Overall, the AREU of Lombardy Region demonstrated excellent preparation for the Expo 2015 MG. Flexibility, integration and strong cooperation between the pre-hospital settings and hospitals were incorporated into the application of the plan. The final data showed the effectiveness of the adopted model and the reduced impact on the hospital network.
Effects of ICT and media information on collective resilience after disasters –from a virtual crowd to a psychological crowd – Part 1 – ICT and media information and collective resilience in an emergency situation [Draft paper]
John W. Cheng, Hitoshi Mitomo
This paper is the first part of a two-part study that aims to examine the relationship between collective resilience and ICT and media information. Previous studies find that in disaster and emergency situations, most people are capable to remain coherent and to offer mutual help.
This paper focuses on the relationship between collective resilience and ICT and media information in an emergency situation using uses the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake as a case study. Specifically, it focuses on the tens of thousands of commuters who were stranded at the train stations for long hours because of the earthquake. Using a cluster analysis of data collected from an original questionnaire survey in Japan, we found that information from different media sources can contribute to people’s collective resilience behaviours. In particular, under the external threats posed by the disaster, people who were better informed were more likely to be associated with others, and also to give and receive help.
Smart surveillance systems developed in recent years have made enormous contributions to providing safety and management of crowds. The aim of this study is to observe and try to understand how crowd movements presented in a video sequence show behaviour. For this end, the motion data at pixel level among the consecutive frames is obtained using optical flow initially. Then, this motion data is associated using the particle advection method and stable as well as moving areas in the image are obtained. After, the moving areas clustered using Mean-Shift method are described and classified as parabola, in addition to the studies in the literature. At the end of the study, the method developed was tested over UCF as well as Pets2009 datasets and the results are presented.
Nirajan Shiwakoti, Majid Sarvi, Geoff Rose
The movement of large numbers of people is important in many situations, such as the evacuation of buildings, stadiums and public transport stations. Numerous incidents have been reported in the literature in which overcrowding has resulted in injuries and death during emergency situations. Modelling and empirical study of crowd safety under emergency conditions is imperative to assist planners and managers of emergency response to analyse and assess safety precautions for those situations. In this paper, we draw on the simulation tool for crowd dynamics to examine how those tools can enhance understanding about the development of safe design solutions for emergency escape. Particularly, it is shown that the adjustments of small structural features in an enclosed area can have large potential effects in terms of crowd safety.